Not Listed in Green Book

Alhambra Bowling Center

Alhambra Bowling Co. was located in the Euclid-105th Market building. It was reported for discriminatory treatment of Black bowlers in 1940. Additional information coming soon. Resources “Call-Post Columnist Wins Cash for Bowling Jim-Crow.” Call & Post. February 1, 1941.

Apex Club

The Apex Club was a private music club, and could even be considered a country club, for African Americans during the early to mid-1930s. Conveniently located seven miles away from central downtown Cleveland, it sat on route forty-three also known as Aurora Road in Solon. Club owner Charles V. Carr was a very prominent African […]

Bedford Reservation

Bedford Reservation in the Cleveland metropolitan park system was occasionally referenced as a picnic spot used by African Americans in the 1930s. Later, in 1962, despite many years of Black horseback riding on the Bedford Reservation’s bridle paths, the Black Beauty Riding Club refused to rent its horses to African Americans, claiming that “99 percent […]

Brady Lake

Brady Lake was an amusement park and leisure destination along Brady Lake between Kent and Ravenna, Ohio. It opened in 1898 and was regionally popular into the mid-20th century. Brady Lake attracted African American leisure-seekers in the interwar years. Additional information coming soon.

Brushwood Lake

Located in Furnace Run Metro Park, Brushwood Lake was one of two public parks in Summit County (the other being Virginia Kendall Park) whose swimming areas were open to African Americans in the mid 20th century. Brushwood’s swimming area operated only for a few years in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Additional information coming […]

Cafe Tia Juana

Cafe Tia Juana was a jazz club that opened in 1947, replacing Solomon’s Gold Bar at 1045 East 105th Street. Cafe Tia Juana remained until closing in 1969. An earlier Tia Juana Cafe (a Mexican restaurant) at 2134 East 55th Street in the Cedar-Central neighborhood in the early 1940s does not seem to have been […]

Camp Cheerful

Camp Cheerful opened in 1945 by the Society for Crippled Children as the nation’s first camp designed especially for children with disabilities. It is located in Mill Stream Run Reservation near Strongsville. In its early years the camp operated on a segregated basis but eventually integrated its programs. Additional information coming soon. Resources “Handicapped Youth […]

Camp Mueller

Camp Mueller is located on Akron-Peninsula Road in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park north of Cuyahoga Falls and was started by the Phillis Wheatley Association in 1939 as an interracial camp for inner-city children. Additional information coming soon. Resources “Phillis Wheatley Association.” Cleveland Historical. Phillis Wheatley Association (Oral History Collection). Cleveland Voices.

Chestnut Beach

Chestnut Beach hosted various organizations’ outings and offered outdoor recreation and dancing. In 1937, it hosted the “All Ohio-Pennsylvania Negro outing.” The precise location is unclear. It was described as being “reached via route 8 and route 526.” The latter highway, now defunct, ran from East Akron through Mogadore to Route 43 in Suffield Township. […]

Chippewa Valley Camp

Located on Riverview Road in the Brecksville Reservation of the Cleveland Metroparks, Chippewa Valley Camp was home to the Playhouse Settlement (Karamu House)’s summer camp from 1923 to 1947. The camp was part of a broader collaboration between the Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board and the Cleveland Welfare Federation. Additional information coming soon. Resources Raponi, Richard. […]

Circle Theatre

Circle Theatre was located at 10208 Euclid Avenue in the city’s so-called “second downtown” that centered on Euclid and E. 105th. The theater opened as the Hoffman in 1920, became the Circle in 1927, and operated until 1959. In the 1950s, as the adjacent Hough neighborhood transitioned to a majority Black area, the entertainment businesses […]

Cottage Grove Lake Resort

Cottage Grove Lake in the Portage Lakes emerged as a picnicking and recreational spot as early as the 1880s after the Cleveland Terminal & Valley Railroad initiated passenger service through the Cuyahoga Valley between Cleveland and the Portage Lakes. By 1890 the railroad financed the development of Cottage Grove Lake into a full-fledged resort. A […]

Craig Beach

Craig Beach was a small amusement park, beach, and picnic ground along the western shore of Lake Milton in the northwest corner of Mahoning County. Black patrons frustrated by the Jim Crow policies at Youngstown’s Idora Park traveled eighteen miles to Craig Beach in 1937 for their annual “Negro Day” outing. The Pittsburgh Courier reported […]

Crystal Beach

Crystal Beach was a lakeside amusement park that operated in Vermilion, Ohio, from 1907 to 1962. The earliest mention of Black visitors was that of the Union Sunday School picnic in 1908. In 1932, the Cleveland Plain Dealer reported that the Cuyahoga County Lodge of Colored Elks held its annual picnic at Crystal Beach, suggested […]

East 9th Street Pier

East 9th Street Pier has long been a center for pleasure, initially as the principal Cleveland dock for passenger ships that plied Lake Erie. Later, during the 1960s, the Pier became home to a popular local restaurant, Captain Frank’s. Today, it is home to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and the Goodtime III […]

Euclid Beach Park

Euclid Beach Park, located in Cleveland’s North Collinwood neighborhood along Lake Erie, was the city’s best-known amusement park for about seven decades. Throughout its history, it was also the site of many confrontations over its policy of segregation. Euclid Beach was segregated starting in 1895, its first season, denying African Americans use of the Dance […]

Falcon Lake Park

Falcon Lake Park was a Portage Lakes area picnic spot and recreational site used by African American as well as German, Polish, Slovak, and various other ethnically based organizations, fraternal orders, and churches from around Akron and Canton. It was located on Caston Road along Nimisila Reservoir. Additional information coming soon.

Frank Handy Farm

The Frank Handy Farm was located on Holbrook Road off Franklin Street near Chagrin Falls Park. Handy, a native of New Iberia, Louisiana, moved to Cleveland in the early 1900s and earned money by gigging on the alto saxophone before opening a confectionery business at East 43rd and Cedar Avenue. Handy, who was a great […]

Garfield Park Pool

Garfield Park Pool was located in Garfield Heights and was a site of racial threats to Black swimmers in the late 1940s-50s. Additional information coming soon. Resources Seawell, Stephanie L. “The Black Freedom Movement and Community Planning in Urban Parks in Cleveland, Ohio, 1945-1977.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 2014. Smith, Kelsey. […]

Geauga Lake Park

Geauga Lake Park was a picnic ground, recreational area, and amusement park located 18 miles southeast of Cleveland on Geauga Lake (previously known as Picnic Lake and Giles Pond) along the border of Bainbridge Township in Geauga County and Aurora in Portage County, where it operated from 1887 to 2007. The earliest mention of African […]


Gleason’s was a prominent jazz, blues, and R&B club that operated from 1948 to 1962 at 5219 Woodland Avenue in Cleveland’s Cedar-Central neighborhood. Additional information coming soon. Resources Hendricks, George. Interview by Adonees Sarrouh. 24 October 2013. Cleveland Voices. Sarrouh, Adonees. “Gleason’s Musical Bar.” Cleveland Historical.

Goodrich Farm Camp

Goodrich Farm Camp was located in Hudson, Ohio. The summer camp was a program operated by Goodrich House, a settlement house at East 55th Street at St. Clair Avenue in Cleveland. The camp started in 1898 in Willoughby and moved to Hudson fourteen years later. African American children started attending the camp soon thereafter following […]

Gordon Park

Gordon Park is a public park, owned and administrated by the City of Cleveland. The park offered public access to water through its swimming beach and small boats. Cleveland residents could easily reach it by public transport or by car. The park was integrated during the 1940s, but racist incidents remained common. Shifts in the […]

Haltnorth Theatre

Haltnorth Theatre was located just north of Woodland Avenue and East 55th Street. In the early to mid 1930s, the Haltnorth, which hired only white workers above the rank of janitor and refused to show films with Black casts, tried to prevent a growing number of nearby Black theaters from obtaining first-run films. In 1936, […]

Happy Days Camp

Happy Days Camp was a youth camp and picnic ground constructed in Virginia Kendall Park between 1933 and 1938 by Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers on Route 303 a mile west of Route 8 near Peninsula. In 1955 the Akron Chapter of the NAACP held a picnic there. Additional information coming soon.

Hiram House Camp

Hiram House Camp is located on Hiram Trail, the eastern extension of Harvard Road in Moreland Hills in eastern Cuyahoga County. The camp has its roots in the Hiram House social settlement that was located on Orange Avenue on the edge of Cleveland’s Cedar-Central district. Beginning in the 1890s, it operated various camps at outlying […]

James Farm

The James Farm was located on Route 534 in Harpersville Township near its border with Trumbull Township. Percy and Blanche James purchased the 25-acre farm in 1956. The Jameses hosted Black vacationers and picnickers, as reported occasionally in the Call & Post. Additional information coming soon.

Jewel Lake Park

Jewel Lake Park was a planned Black leisure spot along Round-up Lake along Route 82 northwest of Mantua in Portage County. Whites in the vicinity employed threats of violence and a hastily adopted zoning code to prevent its opening in 1955. When an African American minister from St. Andrews Episcopal Church in Cleveland arrived in […]

John C. Jackson Farm

John C. Jackson of Chagrin Falls, a white guard at Chase Brass and Copper Co., was born in 1905 on a 96-acre farm in Moreland Hills village on the corner of S.O.M. Center Road and Jackson Road, the latter of which was named for his father, Charles W. Jackson. John C. Jackson acquired a number […]